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Optimisation, fabrication et caractérisation d’un capteur de gaz à base d’hétérostructure AlGaN/GaN HEMT pour des applications automobiles

Abstract : The work of the thesis focuses on the development of a new type of gas sensors based III-Nitride semiconductor materials (gallium nitrides). These materials have many advantages that could be used to develop sensitive and selective NOx sensors for the control of pollution emitted by diesel exhaust line. To limit the polluting gases emitted by internal combustion engines in general and diesel in particular (NO, NO2, NH3, CO, ...), different European standards have been established. To meet these standards, anti-pollution systems (consisting of particle filters, catalysts, NOx sensors, ... etc) are used. NOx sensors currently used in automobiles are based on a solid electrolyte. Their operation is based on the measurement of the oxygen concentration. This enables an estimate of the total concentration of NOx gas (indirect measurement) after filtering NOx from O2 and decomposing NOx into O2. These sensors do not detect NH3 at the outlet of the exhaust line, and do not give accurate information on the relationship between NO and NO2 (lack of selectivity) which is important factor for an optimal functioning of selective catalyst (SCR performance improvement). Hence there exists a need for a more efficient and selective in particular gas sensor to improve the control systems, post-treatment and diagnosis. Our approach is to use a HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) transistor based on gallium nitride with a combination of a functional layer instead of the gate. The interaction of the gas molecules with the functional layer gives a signature (output signal variation) specific for each type of gas that helps to improve the selectivity. The project contains two parts: the optimization of the chosen structure and the optimization of the functional layer in order to achieve selective detection between various gaseous pollutants. This technology is interesting for development of gas sensors through the possibility of detection low voltage variations and the possibility of operating in harsh environments. The thesis is part of OpenLab "Materials and Processes" in a collaboration between Georgia Tech-CNRS laboratory and the PSA Peugeot-Citroen Group
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  • HAL Id : tel-02985765, version 1

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Yacine Halfaya. Optimisation, fabrication et caractérisation d’un capteur de gaz à base d’hétérostructure AlGaN/GaN HEMT pour des applications automobiles. Science des matériaux [cond-mat.mtrl-sci]. Université de Lorraine, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016LORR0312⟩. ⟨tel-02985765⟩

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