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The contribution of virtual crisis simulations to the study of crisis management situations : the case of iCrisis crisis simulation approach

Abstract : The emergence of major crises illustrates, on the one hand, the high intensity of these events, but also the increasing complexity and interdependence of systems, which are resulting in a larger number of affected organizations. Nowadays, many events are considered as crises, whereas they can only be emergencies. This use of the term «crisis» can be counterproductive because, due to its unique nature, the crisis requires special capabilities such as adaptation, unlike events in the field of emergency management that require the application of a procedure. To reduce the risk of major crises, prevention and protection are necessary. However, not all situations are predictable and for this reason, the organizations exposed must be prepared. To prepare and improve the experience of crisis managers, simulation appears to be a solution. Stress simulations raise awareness of crisis situations and allow organizations to gain experience by placing them in a virtual environment that tries to reproduce real conditions as much as possible. The objective of reproducing the situation as accurately as possible is necessary, but there is no verification/validation method to ensure that the simulation method is really effective. In addition, the majority of existing crisis simulators aim to achieve an educational objective for people involved in emergency or crisis situations. However, due to the complex nature of crisis situations, it is in the interest of conducting stress tests to investigate the crisis itself. In this context, we propose to question the ability of the iCrisis crisis simulation approach to place strategic managers in a situation with similar characteristics to those of a «real crisis». This interesting approach within the framework of the given pedagogical objectives also makes it possible to open up to objectives less known for crisis simulators: to achieve scientific objectives. Indeed, does such a system also make it possible to study certain aspects of the crisis? Through this manuscript, we will try to contribute to the reflection on these two aspects. To provide some answers to these questions, this manuscript proposes 5 chapters: - Chapter 1 aims to understand the positioning of the concept of crisis in relation to the concept of urgency. - Chapter 2 is devoted to the definition of the crisis that is used in research. - Chapter 3 discusses the research methodology with an emphasis on iCrisis simulation. - Chapter 4 presents the study that examined whether participants in iCrisis simulations experienced the characteristics of a real crisis. - Chapter 5 presents two studies that have been conducted. One concerns the assessment of mental workload and. The second is to test the use of a tool that evaluates cascading effects. The research made it possible to clarify the difference between emergency and crisis, and then to propose a definition of the crisis based on its characteristics. It also made it possible to implement the iCrisis crisis simulation approach, which is precisely described. The second important result is the presentation of the study the study which aimed to observe that the characteristics of the crisis are well observable during an iCrisis simulation. Finally, we demonstrate that studies on issues applied to the crisis can be conducted with iCrisis and yield results.
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Clément Judek. The contribution of virtual crisis simulations to the study of crisis management situations : the case of iCrisis crisis simulation approach. Sciences of the Universe [physics]. Université de Lorraine, 2019. English. ⟨NNT : 2019LORR0350⟩. ⟨tel-03117818⟩

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