Quantification des molécules organo-chlorées dans les sols et suivi de leur formation et dégradation ? rôle des microorganismes

Abstract : Chlorine, a chemical element of the halogen group, has a complexe biogeochemical cycle in ecosystems. . However, amounts of chlorine in soils and processes controlling chlorine speciation have been still poorly documented. Aims of this study were to estimate organic and inorganic forms of chlorine in different soils and to link Cl amounts with environmental parameters (soils characteristics, Cl external sources?) and global bacterial activity of soils. Measurements were made from the surface organo-mineral horizons of soils chosen for their contrasting environments and land use (a): located on a calcareous rock under three different vegetation covers (forest, crop, pasture) (b) and (c) soils with high organic inputs as manure (soil of Brittany) or soil rich in polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, (d): a saline soil (Marsall, 57) (e): an acid soil (Vosges mountains). Our results provide new data on the quantities of chlorine retained in soil developped on various substrates and under various occupations. They underline the importance of organic forms of chlorine retained. This suggests the quick transformation of inorganic Cl brought with atmospheric deposition to an oragnic form in soils. Factors that appear to influence the chlorine storage in soils were discuss : (1) positive link with organic matter content, (2) negative link with soil pH, (3) influence of land use and vegetation cover (4) Link with bacterial global activity. These parametrs are all linked, they determinate soil types, pedogenetic processes, organic matter turnover and chlorine contents. In contrast, high atmospheric inputs of inorganic chlorine known to appear near the sea have no clear influence on the chlorine contents in brittany surface soil horizon. This study provides methodological informations, our results suggest that the measure of global bacterial activity on fresh soils is more representative of the current microbial activity of soils. More studies should be done now to (1) characterise microorganisms and their influence on chlorine forms and evolution in soils (2) to estimate the dynamic of chlorine and identify processes that control it in natural ecosystems.
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Master thesis
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Aurélie Osswald. Quantification des molécules organo-chlorées dans les sols et suivi de leur formation et dégradation ? rôle des microorganismes. Sciences de la Terre. 2012. ⟨hal-01871324⟩

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