Wall slip mechanisms in direct and inverse emulsions

Abstract : We carry out a series of experiments with the aim of completing our knowledge of wall slip characteristics, through a deductive approach based on macroscopic behavior observations. More precisely, we use model materials (direct and inverse emulsions) and determine the variations of wall slip properties depending on the material parameters (droplet size, concentration) and boundary conditions of the flow (free surface or flow between two solid surfaces, normal force, flow beyond yielding, and coated or rough surface). The wall slip characteristics are determined from long creep tests at different levels and from internal measurements of the velocity profile in the capillary or the Couette flow as determined by magnetic resonance imaging. First, we show that the slip yield stress is due either to edge effects in relation with evaporation then pinning around the line of contact or to a kind of adhesion of the suspended elements to the wall. This adhesion effect varies with the characteristics of the solid surface (interaction with elements, roughness), and wall slip (below the yield stress) disappears when the adhesion or adherence leads to a wall slip yield stress expected to be larger than the material yield stress. Then, we show that, below the yield stress, the slip velocity vs shear stress (from which the slip yield stress has been removed) relationship is linear. The corresponding value for the apparent slip layer made of interstitial liquid appears to be independent of the concentration and to vary only slightly with the droplet size. Moreover, it is independent of the normal force (below the critical value inducing elongation) and other experimental conditions, e.g., it is the same for free surface flows. Although the origin of this phenomenon remains to be found, the following scheme appears to be consistent with all observations: the droplets are attracted at a very short distance from the wall, forming regions of the small area in which the liquid layer thickness is very small, the shear stress being dominated by the shear in these regions. Finally, this apparent layer thickness increases at the approach of the yield stress and beyond, or if a slightly rough surface is used, leading to a faster (quadratic?) variation of the slip velocity as a function of the stress.
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X. Zhang, Elise Lorenceau, Tarik Bourouina, Philippe Basset, Thomas Oerther, et al.. Wall slip mechanisms in direct and inverse emulsions. Journal of rheology, American Institute of Physics, 2018, 62 (6), pp.1495-1513. ⟨10.1122/1.5046893⟩. ⟨hal-01931257⟩

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