Évaluation des Myriophylles comme bioindicateurs des milieux aquatiques en zones agricoles

Abstract : Currently, numerous contaminations affect aquatic ecosystems, specifically pesticides and fertilizers in agricultural areas. These pollutants cause many problems for ecosystems functioning and the organisms that live in those. This study is inscribed within the context of the objectives of the WFD (water framework directive) that aims to improve the quality of aquatic systems. It is further focusing on the impact of pesticides on the aquatic plant Myriophyllum spicatum, a species currently proposed by the OECD as a new test organism, specifically for phytosanitary products. In this project, three pollutants were studied independently (isoproturon (IPU), mesosulfuron-methyl (MSM) and copper (Cu)) at concentrations ranging from 0 to 1000 μg/L, and in two medias with different stoichiometry (N:P = 25:1 and N:P = 100:1), reflecting two trophic levels; each condition in triplicate. At the end of the test, morphometric (length, biomass) and physiological (pigments, total polyphenol content, plant stoichiometry) measures were carried out. The results show different toxicities of the pollutants on the plants; with the highest effects by MSM, followed by IPU and litte effects by Cu on growth parameters. However, isoproturon generally lead to, higher pigment contents while mesosulfuron-methyl lead to a decrease, and copper did not cause many changes. However, for all three pollutants, a higher toxicity was observed in the nitrate-rich medium, and we observed for several parameters significant interactions between the factors medium and pollutant. This study shows that in order to better understand the effects of pollutants in the environment; here specifically on aquatic ecosystems, it is necessary to carry out multistress tests on aquatic plants, taking into account the stoichiometry, i.e. possible imbalances of nutrients, in the environment.
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Master thesis
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Sonia Chatellier. Évaluation des Myriophylles comme bioindicateurs des milieux aquatiques en zones agricoles. Sciences de la Terre. 2014. ⟨hal-02345603⟩

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