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Transitioning from Preclinical to Clinical Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: A Mechanistic Approach

Abstract : To better understand heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), we need to better characterize the transition from asymptomatic pre-HFpEF to symptomatic HFpEF. The current emphasis on left ventricular diastolic dysfunction must be redirected to microvascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction that leads to cardiomyocyte remodeling and enhanced interstitial collagen deposition. A pre-HFpEF patient lacks signs or symptoms of heart failure (HF), has preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) with incipient structural changes similar to HFpEF, and possesses elevated biomarkers of cardiac dysfunction. The transition from pre-HFpEF to symptomatic HFpEF also involves left atrial failure, pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction, and renal failure. This review focuses on the non-left ventricular mechanisms in this transition, involving the atria, right heart cavities, kidneys, and ultimately the currently accepted driver-systemic inflammation. Impaired atrial function may decrease ventricular hemodynamics and significantly increase left atrial and pulmonary pressure, leading to HF symptoms, irrespective of left ventricle (LV) systolic function. Pulmonary hypertension and low right-ventricular function are associated with the incidence of HF. Interstitial fibrosis in the heart, large arteries, and kidneys is key to the pathophysiology of the cardiorenal syndrome continuum. By understanding each of these processes, we may be able to halt disease progression and eventually extend the time a patient remains in the asymptomatic pre-HFpEF stage.
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Submitted on : Monday, May 18, 2020 - 3:53:50 PM
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Antoni Bayes-Genis, Felipe Bisbal, Julio Nuñez, Enrique Santas, Josep Lupón, et al.. Transitioning from Preclinical to Clinical Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction: A Mechanistic Approach. Journal of Clinical Medicine, MDPI, 2020, 9 (4), pp.1110. ⟨10.3390/jcm9041110⟩. ⟨hal-02611708⟩



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