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Journal Articles Nanomaterials Year : 2022

Non-Cytotoxic Nanoparticles

Abstract

For several decades, nanoparticles (NPs) are becoming widely used in various industries, in electronics, agriculture, textile production or medicine. The benefits of using NPs are enormous, and NPs have found applications for many years in a wide variety of fields, among which we can mention as an example catalysis, electronic devices, removal of persistent pollutants from the environment, clothing, coating and sporting goods, diagnosing tools and treatment, cosmetics and personal care products, or food supplements [1-3]. The increase in the production of NPs and in their use inevitably results in their enhanced exposure to humans and the environment. Moreover, the marketing of NPs is faster than the time required to assess their risks on human health and the environment. For this reason, a significant effort is dedicated to research in the area of environmental and health safety of nanotechnology. After entering the human body through inhalation, absorption, injection or ingestion, NPs may cross various cellular barriers and reach sensitive organs like the lung, the liver or the kidney. This may result in mitochondrial damage, DNA mutations and very often cell apoptosis [4,5]. The primary mechanism in NPs toxicity is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that may induce oxidative stress, which will have as consequences damages to cell membranes, to proteins, and to DNA [6]. It is also noteworthy that the level of ROS generated by NPs may depend on various parameters like their size, their morphology, their composition, their surface chemistry, their colloidal stability or their degree of agglomeration [7]. The environmental situation is also very complex and to assess the safety of NPs, it is crucial to master the release, the transport, the accumulation, the bio-transformation/degradation, and possibly the uptake of NPs by living beings that may be exposed [8]. At present, researchers as well as socioeconomic actors often face the problem of balance between the positive effect of NPs and side effects related to their toxicity. Developing structure-activity relationships is needed to predict biological impacts, ecological impacts, and degradation at end-of-life. Each of these models is necessary to design NPs that will have the desired human health and environmental performance to complement their chemical and physical properties. Some of these issues have been studied in this Special Issue, "Non-cytotoxic Nanoparticles", and improvements have been proposed to reduce or eliminate any toxicity from NPs.
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hal-03754611 , version 1 (19-08-2022)

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Raphaël Schneider. Non-Cytotoxic Nanoparticles. Nanomaterials, 2022, 12 (16), pp.2865. ⟨10.3390/nano12162865⟩. ⟨hal-03754611⟩
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