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Journal Articles Research Policy Year : 2022

Artificial intelligence in science: An emerging general method of invention

Abstract

This paper offers insights into the diffusion and impact of artificial intelligence in science. More specifically, we show that neural network-based technology meets the essential properties of emerging technologies in the scientific realm. It is novel, because it shows discontinuous innovations in the originating domain and is put to new uses in many application domains; it is quick growing, its dimensions being subject to rapid change; it is coherent, because it detaches from its technological parents, and integrates and is accepted in different scientific communities; and it has a prominent impact on scientific discovery, but a high degree of uncertainty and ambiguity associated with this impact. Our findings suggest that intelligent machines diffuse in the sciences, reshape the nature of the discovery process and affect the organization of science. We propose a new conceptual framework that considers artificial intelligence as an emerging general method of invention and, on this basis, derive its policy implications.
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hal-03958025 , version 1 (06-03-2023)

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Stefano Bianchini, Moritz Müller, Pierre Pelletier. Artificial intelligence in science: An emerging general method of invention. Research Policy, 2022, 51 (10), pp.104604. ⟨10.1016/j.respol.2022.104604⟩. ⟨hal-03958025⟩
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