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TABADO : Evaluation d'un programme d'aide au sevrage tabagique pour les adolescents en centres de formation des apprentis (CFA)

Abstract : Context - Most smokers start smoking during adolescence and became smoking dependent before the age of 20. Efforts to fight against smoking in the teenage population have focused largely on programs to prevent rather than quit smoking. On this basis, we implemented an original approach of help to smoking cessation based on a nearness offer associating pharmacologic and cognitive-behavioural strategy with. In a perspective of reducing social health inequalities, we wanted to focus our efforts on a particularly vulnerable population usually not sought, the apprentices. Before expanding such programs, their efficacy must be assessed. Objective- 1) describe the characteristics of smoking in a socially disadvantaged population, the apprentices 2) then highlight the determinants of tobacco addiction in this population 3) and finally meet the main objective which is the evaluation of the effectiveness of offering a smoking cessation program in this population. Method - This quasi-experimental, prospective, comparative study was conducted during two years ofvocational training. The population was composed of all the students from eight VTC (Vocational Training Center) in Lorraine (France). The intervention group (3 CFA) has benefited from the TABADO program, and the control group (5 CFA) received no specific intervention other than educational services generally available. Results - Among the 1,814 students included (770 in the intervention group, 1044 in the control group), 52.0 % were smokers among whom 89.4 % daily smokers, and 5.7 % were ex-smokers. The average age of tobacco use initiation was 12.1 years (SD=2.1) and the average age at inception of regular cigarette smoking was 13.8 years (SD=1.6). Current consumption of the smokers was 12.8 cigarettes per day (SD = 7.8). The average score of smoking addiction was 6.1 (SD = 2.8), according to the Hooked On Nicotine Checklist test (score from 0 to 10 = strongly dependent). Factors significantly associated with dependence were female gender, daily cigarette use, high mean daily cigarette use, co-consumption of cannabis, a smoking environment and a high score of perceived vulnerability. Factors perceived as leading to smoking (automatic gesture, combating stress and supporting morale) were also dependence factors. Of 584 original smokers at 12-month follow-up, 17% in the intervention group were abstinent vs. 11.9% in the control group (univariate p=0.08; adjusted p=0.008; odds ratio [OR] 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-3.6). Conclusions - Our study has produced original data on the effectiveness of a smoking cessation in a socially disadvantaged young people who had hardly been investigated so far. The combination of proximity to the action of information and psychological support, and an offer of free nicotine replacement therapy seems to be a prerequisite for success. The demonstration effect of a group should allow the future to develop programs that facilitate this effect of social networks
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Laetitia Minary. TABADO : Evaluation d'un programme d'aide au sevrage tabagique pour les adolescents en centres de formation des apprentis (CFA). Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011NAN10009⟩. ⟨tel-01746151⟩

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