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Développement de méthodes de fouille de données basées sur les modèles de Markov cachés du second ordre pour l'identification d'hétérogénéités dans les génomes bactériens

Abstract : Second-order Hidden Markov Models (HMM2) are stochastic processes with a high efficiency in exploring bacterial genome sequences. Different types of HMM2 (M1M2, M2M2, M2M0) combined to combinatorial methods were developed in a new approach to discriminate genomic regions without a priori knowledge on their genetic content. This approach was applied on two bacterial models in order to validate its achievements: Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptococcus thermophilus. These bacterial species exhibit distinct genomic traits (base composition, global genome size) in relation with their ecological niche: soil for S. coelicolor and dairy products for S. thermophilus. In S. coelicolor, a first HMM2 architecture allowed the detection of short discrete DNA heterogeneities (5-16 nucleotides in size), mostly localized in intergenic regions. The application of the method on a biologically known gene set, the SigR regulon (involved in oxidative stress response), proved the efficiency in identifying bacterial promoters. S. coelicolor shows a complex regulatory network (up to 12% of the genes may be involved in gene regulation) with more than 60 sigma factors, involved in initiation of transcription. A classification method coupled to a searching algorithm (i.e. R?MES) was developed to automatically extract the box1-spacer-box2 composite DNA motifs, structure corresponding to the typical bacterial promoter -35/-10 boxes. Among the 814 DNA motifs described for the whole S. coelicolor genome, those of sigma factors (?B, ?WhiG) could be retrieved from the crude data. We could show that this method could be generalized by applying it successfully in a preliminary attempt to the genome of Bacillus subtilis
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 29, 2018 - 10:30:39 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01746308, version 1

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Catherine Eng. Développement de méthodes de fouille de données basées sur les modèles de Markov cachés du second ordre pour l'identification d'hétérogénéités dans les génomes bactériens. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010NAN10041⟩. ⟨tel-01746308⟩

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