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Modifications des stratégies sensori-motrices de l'équilibration en fonction du type d'exercice et de perturbations de l'homéostasie

Abstract : Exercise leads to the acquisition and the integration of new motor skills specific for the type of practiced activity. Exercise is also a risk factor for injuries and seems to transiently alter the balance function. Nevertheless, physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms and their consequences on balance function still remain unclear. This work, which used cycling as a neurosensory model, aimed to evaluate the possible changes of physiological and compensatory balance-related sensory-motor strategies in function of the type of exercise and homeostatic perturbations. Road cyclists? (RCs) and mountain bikers? (MTBs) sensory-motor strategies were evaluated by posturography as well as the effects of exercise-related dehydration. Moreover, the prevalence of vertigo after competitions or training sessions was investigated by a questionnaire in RCs and downhill mountain bikers (MTBsDh). Balance-related visual information was better used by RCs and MTBs, who mainly practised road cycling. Somesthetic information was better used in MTB, who mainly practiced mountain biking. Exercise-related dehydration transiently altered postural control. The more severe the dehydration, the lower was the use of vestibular information. Vertigo commonly occurred after the practice of cycling, particularly in downhill mountain biking. Exhaustion was reported as a crucial factor for vertigo by RCs, whereas for MTBs it was sudden accelerations-decelerations and falls. The difference in sensory organisation between MTB and RC could be explained by adaptive processes elaborated from environmental stimulations and technical specificities of these disciplines. Even though muscular fatigue could explain the exercise-induced alterations of postural performances, vestibular fluid modifications may also be involved by their influence on intralabyrinthine homeostasis, lowering thus the contribution of vestibular information on balance control. The pathophysiological mechanisms generating vertigo might be an effort-related disturbance of homeostasis in RCs. In MTBsDh, the accelerations-decelerations (including falls), to which the head is subjected, might generate dysfunction of peripheral vestibular structures, particularly the otolith organs
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Alexis Lion. Modifications des stratégies sensori-motrices de l'équilibration en fonction du type d'exercice et de perturbations de l'homéostasie. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010NAN10120⟩. ⟨tel-01746330⟩



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