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Experimental study of some parameters affecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) dissipation in the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal plants

Abstract : PAHs are among the most problematic substances as they could accumulate in the environment and threaten the development of living organisms because of their acute toxicity, mutagenicity or carcinogenity. Among remediation techniques for PAH contaminated sites, phytoremediation has been recognized as a promising method owing to its economical and ecological benefits. However, due to the recalcitrant nature of PAH, multivariate and changeful environment factors, this technique is still limited in terms of effectiveness, especially when dealing with high molecular weight PAHs. Inoculation of plants with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, which are ubiquitous in natural and most anthropogenically influenced soils, is known to benefit PAH phytoremediation. However, diverging results were reported on PAH dissipation in plant rhizosphere and the parameters affecting the AM fungi assisted PAH phytoremediation needed more investigation. Some of these parameters were considered in the present work: plant species, AM fungi species, phosphorus nutrition and watering regimes, PAH type, availability and interactions between PAHs. Experiments were performed in pot cultures and in microplates, with different plant species (including alfalfa, tall fescue, ryegrass and celery roots), two AM fungi (Glomus intraradices and Glomus mosseae) and three kinds of PAHs (phenanthrene (PHE), pyrene (PYR) and dibenzo[a,h]anthracene (DBA)), spiked to a soil. PAH molecular weight was a major parameter influencing PAH phytoremediation. With the increase of PAH molecular weight, the culturable PAH degraders decreased, so did the efficiency of phytoremediation. PHE decreased the plant biomass and AM fungi colonization, but it increased the DBA dissipation in both pot and microplate experiments. PYR did not increase DBA dissipation, and addition of PYR into PHE+DBA substrate decreased both PHE and DBA dissipation. PAH phytoremediation efficiency varied with the plant and AM fungi species. Although all four species of plants increased the disappearance of PHE, only alfalfa showed a positive effect on high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs. Glomus intraradices increased the plant biomass and phosphorus uptake of plants, and it also increased DBA dissipation in DBA or PHE+PYR+DBA spiked soil. Co-planted alfalfa and tall fescue colonized with Glomus mosseae obtained higher biomass and the concentration of the PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase genes were significant higher, than with Glomus intraradices, but Glomus mosseae showed no or negative effect on DBA phytoremediation. The phosphorus concentration and water regime also influenced the AM fungus colonization and PAH dissipation. The highest AM colonization and a significant positive impact of mycorrhizal plants on the dissipation of DBA was detected in high-water and low-phosphorus treatment. Results indicated that complex interactions between plants, microorganisms and soil control the fate on PAHs. All the studied parameters significantly affected PAH dissipation in plant rhizosphere, and should be considered for controlling and improving phytoremediation efficiency
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Xiaobai Zhou. Experimental study of some parameters affecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) dissipation in the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal plants. Other. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2010. English. ⟨NNT : 2010NAN10086⟩. ⟨tel-01746365⟩

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