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Evolution de l'agressivité des champignons phytopathogènes, couplage des approches théorique et empirique

Abstract : Living organisms extract resources from their environment and invest them toward various biological functions (growth, survival, reproduction). Available resources in an environment are usually limited so that organisms have to trade-off the resources invested in different biological functions. These trade-offs in resource investment reverberate in trade-offs between life-history traits (age and size at maturity, number of offspring) and determine pathogen potential to adapt to their environment. During this work, we have studied resource allocation strategy during infection caused by spore-producing pathogen. We have determined optimal resource allocation strategies between intra-host multiplication and spore production in different ecological settings. The main result of this work is that the optimal strategy is defined by the existence of a latent period, a period of time during which all extracted resources are investing toward within-host multiplication and no spore is produced. After latency, when the pathogen has a limited access to host resources, consumed resources are invested toward spore production only (Bang-bang strategy). On the contrary, when the pathogen has an unlimited access to host resources, a fixed proportion of host resources are invested toward maintenance of within-host multiplication forms (Bang-mixte strategy). A second part of this work presents empirical test of these theoretical assumptions, through experimentations on Magnaporthe oryzae and on Melampsora larici-populina. Our observations on these pathogens seem to agree with our theoretical predictions and corroborate the relevance of our modelling assumptions and approach
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  • HAL Id : tel-01746373, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 179291

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Audrey Andanson. Evolution de l'agressivité des champignons phytopathogènes, couplage des approches théorique et empirique. Biologie végétale. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010NAN10094⟩. ⟨tel-01746373⟩

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