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Dynamiques saisonnières des réserves carbonées et azotées chez le chêne sessile (Quercus petraea) et le hêtre (Fagus sylvatica) adultes

Abstract : Sessile oak and beech are two deciduous temperate broadleaved species, characterized by contrasted foliar and cambial phenologies. In order to progress in our understanding of reserves management in these species, we studied the seasonal dynamics of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) reserves in adult trees in their natural environment. For this purpose, we developed a multidisciplinary approach associating ecophysiology, biochemistry and isotopy. The monthly monitoring of seasonal variation in C and N reserves in the stem sapwood showed a strong remobilization of starch from the most recent rings of oak in the spring in order to supply the necessary C for early wood growth that is concomitant to leaf expansion in this species. For beech, spring growth seemed to be less dependant on C stored within the stem sapwood. In both species, 2 polypeptides of 13 and 26 kDa accumulated with leaf senescence in the autumn and were highly abundant during the dormant period then they were remobilized with bud burst in the spring. This seasonal variation supports their role in nitrogen storage as vegetative storage proteins (VSP) and does not exclude a role in cold hardiness too. In sessile oak, the in situ 15N labeling of soil N (newly absorbed N) during the bud burst in the spring showed that N reserves accounted for 90% of total N of the new organs (leaves and twigs) at the first stages of growth. The contribution of newly assimilated N became more important when bud burst was achieved. The distribution patterns of non-structural C and N concentrations and amounts at the tree level was realized by an exhaustive sampling of trees from both species in the winter (January) and at full leaf expansion (June). This study showed i) that the distribution of concentrations among tree organs was dependant of the physiological function, wood anatomy and proximity to sink organs, ii) the importance of stem sapwood and coarse roots in reserves storage during the winter, iii) the importance of non-structural nitrogen amounts in leaves and twigs despite their low biomass, iv) higher amounts of non-structural C and N compounds in oak compared to beech, that reflects contrasted needs for spring growth and tissue maintenance during the winter dormancy
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https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/tel-01746388
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Rana El Zein. Dynamiques saisonnières des réserves carbonées et azotées chez le chêne sessile (Quercus petraea) et le hêtre (Fagus sylvatica) adultes. Sylviculture, foresterie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011NAN10002⟩. ⟨tel-01746388⟩

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