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Déterminants moléculaires de la tolérance au zinc des microorganismes eucaryotes

Abstract : Heavy metal pollution leads to harmful impacts on lands and their associated communities. In order to study the diversity of the molecular determinants involved in metal tolerance by these organisms, two different strategies were employed. First, the mechanisms involved in zinc homeostasis and tolerance were studied by functional characterization of selected genes in Laccaria bicolor, an ectomycorrhizal model fungus with high economic value. Zinc homeostasis and tolerance mechanisms are mainly achieve d through the intracellular traffic of zinc mediated by transporters belonging to the ZIP (Zrt-, Irt- related Protein) and CDF (Cation Diffusion Facilitator) families. Phylogenetic analyses revealed an expansion of both CDF and ZIP gene numbers in the genome of L. bicolor, when compared to that of S. cerevisiae. Gene expression was also studied in different fungal tissues or under different zinc concentrations in the culture medium. Moreover, the functional characterization of several CDF and ZIP members was performed, as well as their subcellular localization. These data allowed us to refine the knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in both zinc homeostasis and tolerance in ectomycorrhizal fungi. Finally, an innovative experimental approach of metatranscriptomics was used. The study of the soil metatranscriptome from eukaryotes allows the comparison of functions expressed in eukaryotic communities colonizing different types of soil (contaminated, formerly contaminated, or non-contaminated by heavy metals). Environmental cDNA libraries constructed from mRNA extracted directly from these soils were screened by functional complementation of yeast mutants sensitive to zinc. This study allowed the identification of new genes and new mechanisms involved in zinc resistance. The development of this approach opens new insights into both fundamental and applied research for the detection of genes of interest, whatever the organism is cultivable or not
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  • HAL Id : tel-01746391, version 1
  • PRODINRA : 277248

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Didier Doillon. Déterminants moléculaires de la tolérance au zinc des microorganismes eucaryotes. Sylviculture, foresterie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010NAN10131⟩. ⟨tel-01746391⟩

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