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Mécanismes de régulation neurophysiologique à l'exercice : réponses pressive et bronchomotrice, inhibition réflexe de la locomotion

Abstract : Neural mechanisms related to exercise were studied. At first study focused on cardio-respirarory effects of both substance P and glutamate located in spinal endings of muscular afferents which are activated during exercise. These neurotransmitters were injected in laminae I and II of lumbar dorsal horn in decerebrate and paralyzed cats. The pressor response elicited by glutamate injection was potentiated by injection of substance P at the same site. The second study focused on the airway response during centrally induced exercise.Central stimulation of the hypothalamic locomotor region induced fictive locomotion and an associated increase of total lung resistance in decerebrate paralyzed cats. This airway constriction was the result of two opposite components, a predominant cholinergic constriction and a [beta]-adrenergic dilation. The third study has shown that mechanical and electrical activation of cervical cutaneous afferents inhibits both tonic nerve activity and fictive locomotion induced by activation of mesencephalic locomotor region in decerebrate paralyzed cats. This reflex is believed to be related to the immobility reflex, which exists in many vertebrates, and likely involves the brain stem reticular formation. The putative interest of this reflex to reduce spastic hypertonia in patients with telencephalic injuries is discussed.
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Christian Beyaert. Mécanismes de régulation neurophysiologique à l'exercice : réponses pressive et bronchomotrice, inhibition réflexe de la locomotion. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2000. Français. ⟨NNT : 2000NAN11320⟩. ⟨tel-01746413⟩

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