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Ecologie et phylogénie moléculaires des espèces de Tuber en Chine

Abstract : The edaphic and climatic conditions in Yunnan and Sichuan are particularly favourable for the production of black truffles. However the ecological conditions in other regions of China such as Inner Mongolia, Liaoning, Beijing, Hebei, Shanxi, Gansu and Xizang, where are found other Tuber species, are less favourable for truffle fructification. Phylogenetic analyses based on 4 genes coding for 5.8S-ITS2, betatubulin, protein Kinase C and elongation factor EF-1alpha, showed that T. pseudoexcavatum belongs to the black truffle group. Phylogenetically T. pseudoexcavatum is closely related to the European species T. bru male and the T. indicum complex closely related to the European species T. melanosporum. We suggest that the black truffle group originated from the South of Asia and that it has evolved by two successive migrations towards East and West. The four Chinese black truffles, T. in dicum , T. sinense, T. himalayense and T. pseudohimalayense are net distinguishable, neither morphologically nor microscopically. The phylogenetic and populational studies indicate that they belong to one species: T. indicum Cooke & Massee. Two ecotypes are existing in China in relation with a post-glacial recolonization from the South towards the North. Other specimens of Chinese truffles collected in the last 25 years were studied. Analyses of ITS1, ITS2 and large mitochondrial sub-unit (mt LrRNA) sequences showed that these samples belong to two groups, the Rufum- and Puberulum-groups. Within the Rufum-group, at least three species or sub-species exist in China: T. liaotongense, T. taiyuanense and T. huidongense. ln the Puberulum-group, there are aise at least three Chinese species. Two paleogeographical hypothesis are proposed for the genus Tuber. A common ancestor cou Id have arisen in Asia or in Europe.
Mots-clés : Tuber-écologie Tuber
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 29, 2018 - 10:41:22 AM
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Yongjin Wang. Ecologie et phylogénie moléculaires des espèces de Tuber en Chine. Biologie végétale. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2006. Français. ⟨NNT : 2006NAN10048⟩. ⟨tel-01746618⟩



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