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Theses

Traçabilité des bois de chêne : méthodes moléculaires et applications

Abstract : In response to phytosanitary, commercial, legal or ecocertification concerns, numerous actors of the forestry industry are looking for a reliable technique permitting to control wood origin. ln this study, molecular markers adapted to the analysis of oak wood were developed. The important database on chloroplast DNA variability of European white oaks has allowed to precisely map this variation, which is characterised by a strong geographical structure throughout the European continent. This work is divided in three steps. (i) First, the potential of dry wood for genetic analyses was defined. The DNA isolated from wood is largely degraded and present in low amounts. Genotyping sucess rates increase on fresh sapwood and if targeted sequences are short and present in high copy number per cell. (2) Second, molecular methods were developed to characterise wood haplotypes. Five different PCR-RFLP combinations can be used for that purpose. They allow to check statistically the conformity of the haplotypes detected on wood samples with those encountered in the hypothetical region of origin. A new search for polymorphism bas been conducted in order to better distinguish French or European regions. Some new PCR-RFLP combinations allowed to detect additional variation in France whereas chloroplast microsatellites were designed that could permit the automation of genotyping procedures. Finally, the collection of chloroplast microsatellites variability data allowed us to initiate a study of their evolution. A clear relation between level of variation and microsatellite length has been demonstrated, which should be taken into account in interspecific comparisons. (3) The last study conccrned two different applications of these molecular methods for wood genotyping. The first is an industrial application: the method was adapted to the control the geographical origin of oak wood used to make barrels. The second is in the field of paleogenetics and archaeology: the typing of ancient oak wood allowed to better understand the action of Man on oak populations and the past use of this resource.
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http://docnum.univ-lorraine.fr/prive/SCD_T_2002_0229_DEGUILLOUX.pdf
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 29, 2018 - 10:43:30 AM
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Marie-France Deguilloux. Traçabilité des bois de chêne : méthodes moléculaires et applications. Sylviculture, foresterie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2002. Français. ⟨NNT : 2002NAN10229⟩. ⟨tel-01746727⟩

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