Distribution de l'exposition de la population urbaine à des polluants particulaires et gazeux génotoxiques et évaluation du risque de cancer

Abstract : The objective of the Genotox' ER program, conducted in 4 French metropolitan areas (Grenoble, Paris, Rouen and Strasbourg), was to describe exposure distributions of urban populations to PM[subscript]2.5, PM[subscript 10], and to some of their mineral and organic constituents, to NO2 and benzene, according to the profile of local pollution, that can be associated with industrial sources, heavy traffic, or representative of the "urban background". The data collected from 60 to 90 adults and children by site were extrapolated to large urban population using a Geographic Information System approach, and allowed a health impact assessment for lung cancer mortality. In a view to contribute to a better understanding of the hazard, the genotoxicity of the particles that were collected in the personal exposure study was analysed.The mean levels of PM exposure are relatively similar between metropolitan areas, and did not show strong spatial heterogeneity across urban sectors, whereas the black smoke index and NO2 did so. The analysis of the particles' chemical composition also showed mild contrasts ; although weak, this variability is related to the type of urban sector, perhaps due to the presence of fixed or mobile local sources. In the sector most influenced by traffic emissions in Ile de France, the organic extracts from PM[subscript 2.5] particles collected in the personal exposure study exhibit a genotoxic response. A specific work showed that usage of outdoor ambient levels to estimate the urban population chronic exposures should be done with caution, due to discrepancies between the metrological means involved currently in personal exposure measurement and ambient air quality monitoring, but also because of, indoor sources, and the persistence of heterogeneity in the design of air quality networks across cities. The average annual number of lung cancer deaths attributable to PM[sbuscript 2.5] chronic exposure, is estimated about 16 in Grenoble, 25 in Strasbourg, 48 in Rouen and 404 in Ile de France, showing that air pollution is still a serious public health problem in our urban environment, even though important progress has been made during the last decades.
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http://docnum.univ-lorraine.fr/prive/SCD_T_2004_0263_NERRIERE.pdf
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Eléna Nerriere. Distribution de l'exposition de la population urbaine à des polluants particulaires et gazeux génotoxiques et évaluation du risque de cancer. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2004. Français. ⟨NNT : 2004NAN10263⟩. ⟨tel-01746965⟩

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