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Rôle de la variabilité de Melampsora larici-populina, agent de la rouille des peupliers, et de la structure de la population hôte sur l'évolution des populations de l'agent pathogène

Abstract : Poplar rust due to Melampsora larici-populina, causes premature defoliation and storage disturbances of cultivated poplars, reducing log production. Poplar cultivars were selected for numerous criteria particularly complete resistance to M. larici-populina. During the past 20 years, plantation of poplar cultivars expressing different specific resistances regularly resulted in the apparition of new rust races. In 1994, a new group of races, called E4, was detected. These races are now responsible for important damages in young poplar plantations. The number of E4 races increased between 1994 and 1999. Studies on aggressiveness and competitivity of these races demonstrated an important inter and intra-race variability for these biological factors. An increased aggressiveness was observed for recent isolates, compared with early isolates, collected from an abundantly cultivated clone. Furthermore, aggressiveness and competitivity seemed not to be affected by virulence number. Cross-protection, by avirulent races, resulting in a lower infection by a virulent race, was described for the first time on poplar foliar discs. We studied the effects of poplar clone mixtures on rust infection and on plant growth, in comparison with monoclonal plots. The mixture only induced a weak infection reduction, compared with monoclonal plots, and this reduction varied with clone, year, site and racial composition of the pathogen's population. Since the populations of M. larici-populina are increasingly complex, the interest of poplar clone mixtures in order to control rust epidemics has still to be demonstrated. Furthermore, poplar clone mixtures may induce additional constraints for the poplar growers and the peeling industry.
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Theses
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http://docnum.univ-lorraine.fr/prive/SCD_T_1999_0288_MIOT.pdf
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https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/tel-01747260
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 29, 2018 - 10:55:56 AM
Last modification on : Thursday, January 21, 2021 - 2:48:18 PM

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  • HAL Id : tel-01747260, version 1

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Sandrine Miot. Rôle de la variabilité de Melampsora larici-populina, agent de la rouille des peupliers, et de la structure de la population hôte sur l'évolution des populations de l'agent pathogène. Sylviculture, foresterie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 1999. Français. ⟨NNT : 1999NAN10288⟩. ⟨tel-01747260⟩

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