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Approche spatio-temporelle des mécanismes de la propagation des failles normales : des modélisations analogiques à la sismique 3D

Abstract : In petroleum geology, normal faulting is a major process in the formation of oil traps in extensional domains. Evaluating the quantities of hydrocarbons trapped, especially at the edges of structures, requires thorough knowledge of the 3D geometry of fault tips and their propagation mechanisms. To study the propagation mecanisms of normal faults, two types of analog modeling are conducted here: (1) propagation tests of pre-existing fauHs in translucid analog materials with video monitoring and (2) extensional deformation of two-Iayer sand/silicone scale models with X-ray tomograph imaging (medical scanner). This type of approach makes it possible to analyze fault propagation mechanisms in three dùnensions over the course oftime. The results are used to develop a conceptual model of the propagation of neoformed normal faults within a spatio-temporal (4D) framework. Whichever type of analogue model is used, secondary faults arranged in en échelon patterns arise at the tips of the main fault. Normal fault propagation mechanisms results mainly from connection processes between the secondary faults, between secondary faults and the main fault, and from the junction of two main faults. These connection processes are the source of the different types of undulation observed on fault planes. To validate the theoretical model, detailed morphology of natural neoformed normal faults is analysed by means of 3D seismic blocks (Niger Delta, Gulf of Gabes) and field examples (Oklo, Gabon). The natural extensional structures are interpreted using 4D sequences developed by analog modeling. The influence of the structural heritage (reactivation of a deep fault) on the geometry and propagation of neoformed normal faults is also considered.
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http://docnum.univ-lorraine.fr/prive/SCD_T_1997_0270_MARCHAL.pdf
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https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/tel-01747355
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 29, 2018 - 10:57:51 AM
Last modification on : Monday, February 15, 2021 - 2:53:54 PM

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  • HAL Id : tel-01747355, version 1

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Denis Marchal. Approche spatio-temporelle des mécanismes de la propagation des failles normales : des modélisations analogiques à la sismique 3D. Sciences de la Terre. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 1997. Français. ⟨NNT : 1997NAN10270⟩. ⟨tel-01747355⟩

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