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Résistance à l'action des catécholamines, de la leptine et de l'insuline au cours de l'obésité : étude de la réactivité du système nerveux autonome "in vivo" et de la lipolyse "in vitro"

Abstract : A decreased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity could be involved in the physiopathology of obesity. We used spectral analysis to measure the variability of heart rate and blood pressure in normotensive obese subjects. In standing position, baroreflexe sensitivity and SNS reactivity were altered and negatively correlated to insulin resistance indexes. After a glucose load, an impaired change in indices of sympathetic modulation was observed. Increased leptin to fat mass ratio was paradoxically associated with a decreased sympathetic cardiac modulation. This relationship persisted after weight loss. These abnormalities including impaired SNS reactivity, insulin resistance and an increased leptin concentration for a given fat mass, without hypertension could be described as a particular phenotype of obesity. Catecholamine resistance of adipocyte lipolysis could be related to cell membrane abnormalities. This hypothesis was tested in vitro by increasing the membrane sphingomyelin content of 3T3L1 adipocytes. At short term, a decrease in stimulated lipolysis was observed, that could be related to abnormal membrane signal transduction. The transcription of genes implicated in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism and lipogenesis was activated, but without change in the transcription of beta-adrenergic receptors.
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https://hal.univ-lorraine.fr/tel-01747405
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Didier Quilliot. Résistance à l'action des catécholamines, de la leptine et de l'insuline au cours de l'obésité : étude de la réactivité du système nerveux autonome "in vivo" et de la lipolyse "in vitro". Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2002. Français. ⟨NNT : 2002NAN10252⟩. ⟨tel-01747405⟩

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