Biodétection en temps réel. Contribution à la réalisation d'un nouveau système de détection biologique précoce de la pollution des eaux de surface, fondé sur l'exploitation des décharges autostimulatrices d'un poisson électrique tropical : Apteronotus Albifrons (Apteronotidae - Gymnotiformes)

Abstract : This thesis describes a novel biological early warning system which exploits the real time electric signals generated by the tropical . freshwater fish, Apteronotus albifrons (Gymnotiforms), to detect surface water pollution.The research work was organised around four main axes.We devoted the first part to assessing the current state of knowledge about biomonitors and biosensors. This highlighted the existence of a multiplicity of systems, the diversity of which stems both from the types of species used and the principles developed. The second part presents the description of the new method for biological survey. The underlying principle is based on time characterisation in terms frequency and wave form of the A. albifrons electric organ discharge. These two electric parameters, wbich are normall stable with respect to time, are affected in a toxic environment. The third part investigates the influence, on the bioelectric signal characteristics, of several physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH value, conductivity and dissolved oxygen. Results show that the frequency of the A. albifrolls electric discharge depends strongly on the temperature of water. The same parameter also depends, though to a lesser extent, on both the pH and the concentration of dissolveld oxygen. On the contrary, there was no evidence of the influence of the physico-chemical parameters on the wave form of the signal.The final part establishes the A. alhifrons toxicological sensitivity profiles for six pollutants.This new method allows detection in less than 35 minutes, of the following pollutant concentrations: 35 J.lg.!-l of cyanide, 1 mg.!-I of phenol, 500 J.lg.l-1 of atrazine, 1 mg.!-I of trichloroethylene, 2.7 mg.l-I ofchrome (VI) and between 1.9 and 18.4 mg.l-I ofdiesel. AlI along tbis study, the problems of data reliability and viability as weIl as of the variability of the responses exploited were considered at length.
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Marielle Thomas. Biodétection en temps réel. Contribution à la réalisation d'un nouveau système de détection biologique précoce de la pollution des eaux de surface, fondé sur l'exploitation des décharges autostimulatrices d'un poisson électrique tropical : Apteronotus Albifrons (Apteronotidae - Gymnotiformes). Sciences de la Terre. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 1996. Français. ⟨NNT : 1996NAN10018⟩. ⟨tel-01747516⟩

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