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Rôle du métabolisme carboné dans la modulation de l'activité de la source et du puits chez l'érythrone d'Amérique (Erythronium americanum)

Abstract : Relationships between source and sink activities largely control the growth of plants. Both activities vary during development as well as in response to changes in environmental conditions. The aim of our study was to identify the role carbon metabolism plays in the response of E. americanum growth to changes in source and sink activities. Firstly, sink activity is modulated by changing growth temperature. Sink activity is higher at higher temperatures, whereas sink capacity is more restricted. These effects, due to the modulation of sucrose metabolism, lead to an earlier starch saturation of bulbs at higher temperature. Thereafter, the reduction in carbon sink demand induces a feedback inhibition of photosynthetic activity and finally, leaf senescence. In contrast, sink activity at low temperature is more in rhythm with the increasing sink capacity, leading to larger bulbs at the end of the epigeous growth season. Secondly, source activity is modulated by changing CO2 and O3 concentrations. Despite a stimulation of the source activity under high CO2 and its inhibition under high O3, neither plant growth nor starch accumulation was affected. Indeed, excess carbon translocated within the sink is burned by the alternative respiratory pathway. This pathway is stimulated by malic enzyme. Alternative respiratory pathway thus avoids an early starch saturation of the bulb and eventually, an early leaf senescence. Finally, source activity is also modulated by changing irradiance and photoperiod regimes. Starch accumulation changes in response to photoperiod but not to irradiance. Furthermore, photosynthetic activity is inhibited early in the season under long photoperiod. This inhibition seems due to an imbalance between the total amount of carbon fixed per day and its utilisation following translocation to the bulb. We can thus conclude that regulation of carbon metabolism allow to adjust sink activity to sink capacity in E. americanum.
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Anthony Gandin. Rôle du métabolisme carboné dans la modulation de l'activité de la source et du puits chez l'érythrone d'Amérique (Erythronium americanum). Sylviculture, foresterie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010NAN10019⟩. ⟨tel-01748211⟩

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