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Analyse dendrochimique par spectrométrie de rayonnement X : application à l'étude de la nutrition des arbres et des variations spatiales et temporelles de l'environnement

Abstract : This thesis, by measuring wood chemical content called dendrochemistry, tries to respond to some ecological questions linked to tree nutrition and bio-indication of environmental conditions. Methods based on X-rays spectrometry like SXRF (Synchrotron X-Ray Fluorescence) and EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectrometry), which are still scarcely used in dendrochemistry have been tested. First study, by EDS, showed that Ca and Mn wood and bark content of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) varied significantly with the soil type (calcareous vs acidic). Mn content was highly related to soil pH. These results suggest that wood and bark Mn content may be used as a nutritional proxy. Significant differences in wood chemical content between heart- and sapwood were measured for K. For Ca and Mn, these differences became significant depending on the soil type suggesting that the tree origin site could influence the temporal trends. Wood chemical composition, obtained by SXRF, of Rhizophora mucronata Lam., a Kenyan mangrove species, allowed us to detect an annual cyclicity for Br, Ca, Mn et Sr. These results, as if preliminary, are promising for the datation of tropical woods. The comparison of beech trees fertilized by NPKCa with controls showed a high significant effect of fertilization on wood mean concentrations in Br, Ca, Hg and K by SXRF. Hg and Br could be indicators of soil past fertilizations. The high inter-tree variability (Ca, K and Mn) at the temporal scale which is partly linked to differences in tree dominance status limits the possibilities to use this species as an indicator of past soils acidifications. For methodological aspects, these two methods presented results in agreement with classical methods like ICP.
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Anny Weitner. Analyse dendrochimique par spectrométrie de rayonnement X : application à l'étude de la nutrition des arbres et des variations spatiales et temporelles de l'environnement. Biologie végétale. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2007. Français. ⟨NNT : 2007NAN10099⟩. ⟨tel-01748230⟩

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