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Theses

Taxonomie des bactéries anaérobies : De la reclassification à la découverte de nouveaux pathogènes

Abstract : A reliable and up to date taxonomy is essential to unambiguously identify and differentiate human pathogenic microorganisms. Numerous new bacterial taxa have been created over the last years, meanwhile already known species or genus were reclassified, particularly concerning anaerobic bacteria. To clarify the taxonomic position of specific anaerobic bacteria displaying unusual antibiotic resistance, a polyphasic taxonomic approach combining the analysis of phenotypic, genotypic and phylogenetic markers has been used. This approach has been first applied to bacteria displaying low level resistance to vancomycin and belonging to the Clostridiaceae family. It resulted in the description of a new species of Tissierella as well as a new genus, Flavonifractor sp., which arises from the combination of two pre-existing species. Applied in a second time in a study on metronidazole resistance in Pretovella spp., this approach led to the discovery of a new species, Prevotella nanceiensis, the resistance of which to metronidazole has been implicated in therapeutic failure. A new gene (niml) coding a nitroimidazole reductase that seems to be intrinsic to the species Prevotella baroniae has also been described. This study emphasizes the importance of a clear and reliable taxonomy in medical bacteriology as well as the benefit of a polyphasic approach in taxonomy.
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Corentine Alauzet. Taxonomie des bactéries anaérobies : De la reclassification à la découverte de nouveaux pathogènes. Biochimie, Biologie Moléculaire. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2009NAN10123⟩. ⟨tel-01748308⟩

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