Bioingénierie du cartilage et arthrose expérimentale

Abstract : Cartilage lesions can be divided into focals defects caused dy trauma or osteochondritis and into diffuse lesions caused by osteoarthritis (OA). To study the kinetics of degeneration of the articular cartilage during OA, we investigated the clinical and histological events during the early phases of experimental, mechanically-induced OA in the rat induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT). The lesions developed in this model are similar to those observed in clinics. In a second step we investigated the influenjce of several parameters on the course of the model : calibrated effort, intra-articular injection of a proteasome inhibitor (MG 132) and intra-articular injection of hyaluronate. The relationship between sport and osteoarthritis is still debated in the literature but the intensity of physical activities seem to be one of the most important factor in the developpement of OA. We demonstrated in our study that a moderate exercise can limit the severity of chondral lesions after ACLT, in part via an overexpression of an atni-apoptotic factor, Hsp 70. We also demonstrated the chondoprotective effect of a proteasome inhibitor MG 132 andof hyaluronate in our model. In a second step, we developed the culture of primary bovine chondrocytes in collagen gels for cartilage engineering. Our results suggest that primary bovine chondrocytes cultured in collagen gel grew in 3 dimensions, accumulating an extra cellular matrix while maintaining their phenotype during 2-week culture periods. In summary, the chondoprotective effect via an over expression of Hsp70 seems to be useful to prevent cartilage damages and OA. Tissue engineering using collagen gel scaffolds constitutes a new approach to treat cartilage defects.
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Laurent Galois. Bioingénierie du cartilage et arthrose expérimentale. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2003. Français. ⟨NNT : 2003NAN11315⟩. ⟨tel-01748360⟩

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