Multicouche de polyélectrolytes et CSM : deux acteurs complémentaires nécessaires à l'endothélialisation autologue de prothèses vasculaires synthétiques en PTFEe

Abstract : The replacement of arteries with small-diameter synthetic grafts often leads to the failure of such grafts mainly due to the thrombogenicity of their luminal surface. In order to improve long-term patency of these grafts, the concept of endothelial cell seeding has been suggested. Our project aims at designing an original tissue-engineered construct containing a synthetic scaffold (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) modified by a polyelectrolyte multilayer film (PMF)), autologous cells (endothelial (EC) or human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC)), under mechanical (shear stress) or biochemical (VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor)) stimulation. Initially, we studied the effect of the PMF on the scaffold biocompatibility. Our results showed that the PMF allows cell attachment (ePTFE is a non-adhesive substrate otherwise). The EC availability being the greatest obstacle to their use in clinical practice, we worked out a protocol of endothelialization with MSC. We highlighted that PMF promoted MSC graft biocompatibility and the development of cells having on the one hand, in the presence of VEGF, EC phenotype and function and on the other hand, in the presence of mechanical stress, a cytoskeleton organization which supports their shear stability. Unfortunately, this mechanical stress did not permit to obtain expression of EC specific markers but increased cell proliferation. These encouraging results confirm the interest to endothelialize synthetic vascular grafts with EC derived from MSC.
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Vanessa Moby. Multicouche de polyélectrolytes et CSM : deux acteurs complémentaires nécessaires à l'endothélialisation autologue de prothèses vasculaires synthétiques en PTFEe. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008NAN10121⟩. ⟨tel-01748388⟩

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