Dysfonction cardiovasculaire au cours du choc septique : Amélioration des stratégies thérapeutiques

Abstract : While quantitatively abundant, research on septic shock has, from a clinical perspective, encountered many setbacks. Analysis of these setbacks has underscored an overall insufficient consideration of the relational complexity between the various systems involved in cardiovascular failure. Conversely, the initial success observed with Activated Protein C is linked to actual fundamental research taking into account the interaction of two systems (inflammation and coagulation). Recent guidelines highlight the importance of vascular fluid loading and Activated Protein C (APC). The aim of the present work was to improve and to better understand these therapeutic strategies. In the first study, we aimed to assess hemodynamic, tissue oxygenation, and tissue perfusion changes by comparing traditional therapy (fluid resuscitation followed by vasopressor treatment) and alternative therapy (early vasopressor treatment) in a hyperkinetic and sedated model of endotoxic shock. The use of norepinephrine was associated with improved mean arterial pressure, sustained aortic and mesenteric blood flow, and better tissue oxygenation when compared with fluid resuscitation alone, irrespective of time of administration. The early use of norepinephrine plus volume expansion was associated with a higher proportion of blood flow redistributed to the mesenteric area, lower lactate levels, and less infused volume. Thus, the early use of norepinephrine is safe and may decrease the need for volume resuscitation. In the second study, we investigate the potential protective properties of therapeutic ranges of APC on a rat endotoxic shock model in terms of anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective pathways. APC partially prevented the reduction of blood pressure induced by LPS and improved both vascular hyporeactivity and myocardial performance. This was associated with a decreased upregulation of NF-?B, iNOS and MMP-9. LPS-induced tissue increases in NO and O2- production were decreased by APC. Moreover, APC decreased tissue leukocyte infiltration/activation. These data suggest that APC improves cardiovascular function i) by modulating the endotoxin induced-proinflammatory/prooxydant state, ii) by decreasing endothelial/leukocyte interaction and iii) by favoring stabilization of the extracellular matrix. In the third study, we examined the potential protective non anticoagulant effect of (ex-vivo) APC on vascular dysfunction induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice arteries. LPS induced vascular dysfunction. After APC treatment, contractile capacity of aortas and endothelial responsiveness to vasorelaxant drug and shear stress were improved. We showed that rhAPC improved endothelial dysfunction in endotoxemia mice by increasing eNOS activation via Akt / PI3K pathway and NO-dependent dilation as well as COXs vasorelaxants metabolites. We noted that rhAPC also had an anti-inflammatory effect in the vascular wall by decreasing NF-kB activation. This result highlights important insights, regarding the mechanism underlying rhAPC induced-improvements microcirculation in septic shock. To conclude, our experimental results confirm and explain our clinical impression: vasopressor should be used early and APC has major hemodynamics effects through its cytoprotective pathway confirming its preferential use in severe cardiovascular dysfunction induced by sepsis.
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Nacira Sennoun. Dysfonction cardiovasculaire au cours du choc septique : Amélioration des stratégies thérapeutiques. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008NAN10056⟩. ⟨tel-01748418⟩

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