Les processus biogéochimiques impliqués dans la mobilité de l'arsenic : recherche de bioindicateurs

Abstract : Bacteria can play a major role in the environmental mobility of arsenic (As). The aim of this study was to identify key bacterial players involved in the biotransformation of As and to use them as bioindicators or predictive tools of As behaviour in polluted sites. Novel molecular tools were developed based on the aoxB gene which encodes the catalytic subunit of AsIII-oxidase, and validated for use in the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the AsIII-oxidizing bacterial community. The aoxB gene was exclusively detected in all tested AsIII-oxidizing bacteria and AoxB and 16S rRNA gene phylogenies were broadly coherent, demonstrating the usefulness of the aoxB gene as a powerful functional marker. The application of DGGE and real-time PCR on aoxB genes allowed the rapid and sensitive evaluation of changes in the AsIII-oxidizing community as a function of As speciation and pollution level in surface and groundwaters. AsIII-oxidizers and AsV-reducers were found to coexist in tested soils. The crucial role of indirectly As-mobilizing bacteria was also revealed. Indigenous microflorae affected the speciation and mobility of As inherent within the environmental matrix and/or adsorbed on iron oxy-hydroxydes, according to redox conditions. The relevance of the use of aoxB and arrA genes, as functional markers of AsIII-oxidizers and AsV-reducers, respectively, to evaluate potential As transformation was demonstrated. The detection of these bacterial communities using molecular tools was shown to have great promise in the prediction of As mobility in the environment.
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Marianne Quemeneur. Les processus biogéochimiques impliqués dans la mobilité de l'arsenic : recherche de bioindicateurs. Sciences de la Terre. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008NAN10088⟩. ⟨tel-01748420⟩

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