Impact virologique et pharmacologique de la complexation de la ribavirine aux cyclodextrines sur un modèle animal d'encéphalite rougeoleuse

Abstract : The objective of this work was to study the antiviral activity of ribavirin on measles encephalitis infection when using cyclodextrins as carriers. Ribavirin is a water-soluble synthetic nucleoside with broad spectrum antiviral properties, but it is ineffective against major viral encephalitis because of a failure to cross the blood brain barrier. The use of cyclic oligosaccharides can promote the activity of many drugs and the benefit of the association of ribavirin with alpha- or beta-cyclodextrine has already been demonstrated in vitro. The antiviral activity of the ribavirin/cyclodextrin complexes has been evaluated in vivo using an experimental model based on intracranial injection of the rodent adapted CAM/RB strain of measles virus in CBA/ca mice. Measles encephalitis development was monitored daily by viral load determination in mice brain. Intraperitoneal administration of the complex ribavirin/alpha-cyclodextrin (40 mg/kg of ribavirin) decreased the morbidity and the mortality of measles virus infected mice compared to free ribavirin treatment and the viral load in the brain is reduced at day 6 post-inoculation. At the opposite beta-cyclodextrin did not enhanced ribavirin in vivo antiviral activity. The role of alpha-cyclodextrin thus required to be defined and notably the hypothesis of ribavirin permeation enhancement through the blood brain barrier. Ribavirin specific extraction from brain tissue was developed, based on a solid phase extraction. It was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography at different time points after intraperitoneal injection of single or multiple doses of free ribavirin or of the complex ribavirin/alpha-cyclodextrin. Whatever the tested doses, quantity of ribavirin in the brain is significantly higher when the drug is injected as a complex with alpha-cyclodextrin, in healthy or measles virus-infected mice. So pharmacokinetic of ribavirin in brain tissue explains the advantage of the complex ribavirin/alpha-cyclodextrin over ribavirin in protecting mice from intracerebral infection with measles virus and confirms the interest of cyclodextrin complexes for human central nervous system diseases treatment.
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Hélène Jeulin. Impact virologique et pharmacologique de la complexation de la ribavirine aux cyclodextrines sur un modèle animal d'encéphalite rougeoleuse. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2008. Français. ⟨NNT : 2008NAN10117⟩. ⟨tel-01748517⟩

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