Rôle des adipokines dans la physiopathologie de l'arthrose : exemple de la leptine et de l'adiponectine

Abstract : Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease and represents one of the most frequent and disabling disease. There is a positive association between obesity and OA, and not only for knee joints but also for non-weight-bearing joints suggesting that adipose-derived proteins, namely adipokines, may be some keys factors in OA pathophysiology. First, we found that leptin and adiponectin expression and their receptor evolves in an opposite way and depend on differenciation stage of chondrocyte. The production of adipokines were then compared according to adipose tissue and some differences were found between, the infrapatellat fat pad and subcutaneous adipose tissue. After this work, we aimed to further characterize the role of leptin and adiponectin in OA. Adiponectin production by chondrocytes increases when cartilage is damaged and seems to be directly related with MMP-13 and TGF-[bêta] expression. AdipoR1 expression is associated with the expression of matrix components and with Sox9, a transcription factor involved in their synthesis. Adiponectin treatment confirms data in OA patient, that is adiponectin can induce TGF-[bêta] and MMP-13. Then, we showed obesity influences the chondrocyte responsivness to leptin. This adipokine seems to protect cartilage collected from normal or overweight patient by stimulating IGF-1, type 2 collagen and TIMP-2 expression while leptin increases MMP-13 expression for obese patients. Finally, experimental OA in Zucker rat deficient in leptin receptor, showed the protective effect of leptin on cartilage and on subchondral bone.
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Pierre-Jean Francin. Rôle des adipokines dans la physiopathologie de l'arthrose : exemple de la leptine et de l'adiponectine. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université Henri Poincaré - Nancy 1, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010NAN10057⟩. ⟨tel-01748650⟩

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