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Pyrolyse rapide de biomasses et de leurs constituants. Application à l'établissement de lois prévisionnelles

Abstract : The fast pyrolysis of different types of celluloses, lignins, xylanes as well as different mixtures of these basic compounds and two real biomasses (birch wood and wheat straw) has been studied in an image furnace. The mass loss rates of each of the studied model compounds are very different, but usually higher for cellulose than xylane and higher for xylane than lignins. Lignins begin to react before xylane and cellulose. For a given pyrolysis time, lignins produce more char than xylane. Char formation from cellulose remains insignificant, close to zero. Microgranular cellulose gives mainly rise to vapours and very little gas is formed. Cellulose extracted from birch wood shows an intermediate behaviour between microgranular cellulose and lignins. Production rates of gases are higher than those of vapours for xylan. Regarding the mixtures of these three compounds, an intermediate behaviour can be observed. Birch wood is more reactive than wheat straw. Its pyrolytic behaviour is similar with that of cellulose extracted from birch wood with regard to concerning mass loss rates and vapours formation. A simple additive correlation relying on mass loss rates and products formations rates is elaborated and the results compared to the experimental values. It appears that inorganics play an important role in biomass pyrolysis : the pyrolytic behaviour of wheat straw, a biomass which is rich in inorganics, cannot be described by simple additive correlations. Less significant gaps between expected rates obtained by the correlations and the observed rates obtained by the experiments are found for synthetic mixtures and birch wood. In conclusion, the hypothesis of linear correlations cannot be supported for representing the products formations rates. A complete mathematical model is then developed revealing a non-linear behaviour of the variations of mass losses and products formations. Except for wheat straw, new additive correlations are then determined. The agreement with the experimental results is very satisfying with regard to the measurements accuracies
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Stefanie Kohler. Pyrolyse rapide de biomasses et de leurs constituants. Application à l'établissement de lois prévisionnelles. Autre. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2009INPL017N⟩. ⟨tel-01748714⟩

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