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Transport de soluté biologiquement actif en milieu poreux incluant une phase biofilm : de la modélisation numérique aux perspectives expérimentales

Abstract : Modeling transport in porous media of organic chemical solute in presence of a bacterial population growing as biofilms is an important area of research for environmental applications, for example for remediation of groundwater contaminated by organic pollutants (biosparging, bio-barriers). Biofilms, which are composed of bacteria and extracellular organic substances, grow on the pore walls of the porous medium. Bacteria degrade the organic solute by their metabolism and thus may contribute to pollution decrease. Bio-reactive transport of an organic solute in a porous medium including a biofilm phase is a strongly multi-scale (from the bacteria scale to the heterogeneity scale of the aquifer) and coupled (involving hydrodynamic, physicochemical and biochemical phenomena) process. The organic solute is transported by convection and diffusion in the fluid phase and diffuses into the biofilm phase, where it is degraded by bacterial metabolism. The goal of this work is to develop macroscopic models of bio-reactive transport at the Darcy-scale through volume averaging based on the data available at pore-scale. In the general case, the macroscopic system obtained by averaging pore-scale equations is a two coupled equations system (one equation for each phase), called two-equation model. By considering the relation between averaged concentration in the fluid phase and averaged concentration in the biofilm phase, several regimes of transport can be found which allow simplifying this system into a one equation system. The local mass equilibrium assumption leads to such a simplified model. When an equilibrium relationship between phases cannot be considered, a one equation model may though be developed if the biodegration rate is limited by external mass transfer or by the kinetics of bacterial metabolism. The use of these models implies the numerical solving of closure problems, in order to set up the values of the macroscopic transport parameters (dispersion tensor, interfacial flux). Computations of these effective coefficients have been performed in different situations of mass transport in porous medium in order to study their behaviour. The results of these models have then been compared with direct simulations performed on a simplified geometry representative of a two-dimensional porous medium including a biofilm phase. Based on these comparisons, the validity domain of this model has been identified in terms of hydrodynamic and biochemical conditions of transport (i.e. the Péclet number and the Damköhler number). The set up of an experimental model of transport in a porous media including a biofilm phase has also been started, in order to make experimental validations of the previously developed numerical models and to build up an additional tool to study the considered phenomena
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Laurent Orgogozo. Transport de soluté biologiquement actif en milieu poreux incluant une phase biofilm : de la modélisation numérique aux perspectives expérimentales. Autre. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2009INPL091N⟩. ⟨tel-01748791⟩