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Un biomarqueur de génotoxicité chez Gammarus fossarum : développement, signification fonctionnelle et application au milieu naturel

Abstract : Genotoxicants can induce deleterious changes in DNA, the biochemical carrier of inheritance. However, aquatic invertebrates such as crustaceans still lack genotoxicity biomarkers although these species play an essential role in ecosystems. The European Water Directive Policy (2000) is aimed at a holistic approach to towards integrated water protection, in order to improve the status of aquatic ecosystems. To this end, one approach is to develop and validate biomarkers in ecologically relevant species. In this perspective, the objectives of the present work were to develop, to validate, to study the ecological significance of a genotoxicity biomarker in the freshwater species gammarus fossarum and finally to assess it in the field. This is to our knowledge the first genotoxicity assessment in an ecologically relevant freshwater crustacean, using the comet assay. The novelty of our approach was to evaluate the consequences of the sperm DNA damage on reproduction, a crucial biological function. Taking into account biotic and abiotic factors, a robust reference value in gammarus fossarum spermatozoa DNA damage has been established. Then, a relationship bridging the biomarker response measured in spermatozoa and its consequences on reproduction has been shown enabling the establishment of a DNA damage threshold level leading to significant consequences for the reproduction and possibly subsequent population dynamics. Our work clearly demonstrated that DNZ damage in gammarus fossarum spermatozoa is an accurate and relevant biomarker for environmental risk assessment
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Emilie Lacaze. Un biomarqueur de génotoxicité chez Gammarus fossarum : développement, signification fonctionnelle et application au milieu naturel. Ecotoxicologie. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011METZ007S⟩. ⟨tel-01748853⟩

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