Biodiversité et fonctionnement de cours d'eau forestiers de tête de bassin : effet de l'acidification anthropique et d'une restauration

Abstract : Facing the current species extinction, the comprehension of mechanisms linking biodiversity to ecosystem functioning has become essential. Despite a reduction of SO2 and NOx atmospheric emissions, acidification of surface waters remains a major cause of biodiversity erosion. This situation is worrying in the Vosges Mountains, where air spreading of improvements was adopted like a potential alternative. Hence, 2 catchments have received calco-magnesian inputs. Proximity of acidified, restored and healthy ecosystems can provide opportunities to investigate biodiversity/function relationships, in situ. Allochthonous organic matter decomposition which is mainly mediated by aquatic hyphomycetes and detritivore invertebrates, represents a key process driving the functioning of headwater streams. A leaf breakdown experiment was conducted in 6 streams characterized by different acidification levels, before and after that two of them were limed. Our results show that acidification affect leaf breakdown rate, as well as detritivores and decomposers communities, particularly hyphomycetes diversity. The water quality improvement of one limed stream was rapidly accompanied by fungal recolonization and partial functional recovery. Our findings reveal a significant relationship between aquatic hyphomycete richness and breakdown rate. Their diversity could enhance this process by increasing litter palatability for certain shredders. A hypothetical "fungal diversity dependent" food web linkage was proposed
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Jean-Marc Baudoin. Biodiversité et fonctionnement de cours d'eau forestiers de tête de bassin : effet de l'acidification anthropique et d'une restauration. Sciences agricoles. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 2007. Français. ⟨NNT : 2007METZ047S⟩. ⟨tel-01749028⟩

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