Extraction et transfert de cations métalliques par les réactions électrochimiques d'intercalation réversibles dans les phases de Chevrel : application à la valorisation-matière d'effluents

Abstract : The aim of this work is the study of a new electrochemical process. The industrial activity generates large amounts of liquid waste containing heavy metals. Processes used for treating this kind of materials are precipitation, solvent extraction or ion exchange. The limits of such treatments are due to their selectivity towards cations mixtures. A new original electrochemical way is purposed as an alternative of these techniques. This work deals with the extraction and the selective transfer of metal ions contained in liquid effluents or in lixiviats of industrial processes. This technique is based on the reversible redox reactions of insertion and deinsertion of cations in mineral host lattice matrices. The mineral matrix consist in a ternary molybdenum chalcogenides MxMo6X8 (where M = ternary metal cation and X= S, Se) known as Chevrel. This disc is obtained by a technique of synthesis at high temperature. The electrochemical transfer junction ETJ consists of a Mo6S8 or Mo6Se8 disc compacted by hot pressing. This method consists with a synthesis by reactive hot pressing, from mixture of powder of composition adapted for the stoichiometry of desired material. We have obtained a disc (thickness = 4mm, diameter = 25mm) with a compactness rate about 98%. The electrochemical junction allowed a good mechanical behaviour. All experiments were then carried out in a laboratory cell which allow to establish the performances and to locate the limits of the process on the cations Co2+, Fe2+, Ni2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Cu2+. These experiments show that the transfer results from a simple galvanic process between two auxiliary electrodes located in each compartment. The transfer faradic yields about 100% were achieved until a current density of 1.6 mA.cm-2. The results confirm the feasibility of a transfer process. The real operations of the selective transfer are shown with applications for remarkable separations as Co/Ni, Cd/Ni with Mo6S8 and Zn/Ni, Ni/Cd, Mn/Zn with Mo6Se8. The extraction of a solution of cation by an electrolytic process could open many ways of application in the mineral liquid waste management. This process is now being developed for investigations of real industrial liquid wastes. To establish an ion migration modeling, the diffusion coefficients of the various cations in each polycrystalline matrix were measured by various electrochemical techniques. Mobilities of each cation are close and the diffusion coefficients about 10-9 cm2.s-1 except for the selenious matrix through which ions Fe, Co, Ni are not transfer. The proposals of transfer mode for the optimal speeds result in considering, the conditionings in stoichiometry of the ETJ and to resort to low thicknesses for the junctions. The results presented confirm the potentiality of this new mode of treatment and allow considering a technology transfer for the valorization of industrial wastes
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Sakina Seghir. Extraction et transfert de cations métalliques par les réactions électrochimiques d'intercalation réversibles dans les phases de Chevrel : application à la valorisation-matière d'effluents. Autre. Université Paul Verlaine - Metz, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2009METZ047S⟩. ⟨tel-01749044⟩

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