L'hypothèse de neutralité monétaire : une application à la Zone Franc

Abstract : This thesis aims to investigate on the validity of monetary neutrality hypothesis in CFA zone, in respect with the new neoclassical synthesis (Goodfriend and King, 2000) and his resurgence due to the extension of monetary unions. In short run, nominal rigidities may induce some real effects of monetary policy due to information asymmetries, prices viscosities or rigidities [Gordon (1980), Akerlof and Yellen (1977), Mankiw and Reis (2002)]. This confers a capability of managing negative effects of business cycles to monetary policy, with respect to the necessity of tying down agents expectations and knowing monetary transmission mechanism. In long run, monetary neutrality hypothesis steel holds, justifying the necessity to target and inflation rate around the natural rate of unemployment, as preconized by Milton Friedman (1968) and Edmund Phelps (1968). This inflation-unemployment trade-off, a fundamental relationship of macroeconomic models suppose for a full employment equilibrium that the medium or long run inflation target corresponds to the intersection of short run Phillips curve to the long run one: "a natural rate of inflation". The above trade-off between inflation and unemployment may seem somewhat problematic in monetary unions, due to the diversity of Phillips curves with respect to time and space. This difficulty may be overcome in an optimal currency area, as defined by Robert Mundell (1961), Ronald McKinnon (1963) and Peter Kenen (1969). Unfortunately, CFA zone has been and steel mostly a simple monetary bloc, due to the unification of exchange rate rules as pointed by Philippe Hugon (1997). For Ondo Ossa (2000), rather than standard criterion, his optimality may be found on solidarity. Chico Eboué (2000, 2002) claims the goals of monetary policy of the zone induces a bias against inflation, traducing a preference for unemployment over inflation for growth. Also, it results an exchange constraint and a reserve constraint witch induce an excessive accumulation of reserve as in currency board, exposing the zone on dangers of excessive accumulation. This conduce us to the question of this thesis: What are the appropriated monetary policy choices for the inertia and poverty of the CFA zone? The answer to this question has been taken in two ways with respect to the possibility to manage monetary aggregates for fine tuning: (i) firstly, we have investigated on the actuality of monetary neutrality in CFA zone; (ii) Secondly, the consequences of conducing monetary policy with respect of this hypothesis were our purpose. Monetary policy may face some difficulties as heterogeneous behaviours and countries characteristics, instability of money demand functions and persistence of shocks. The welfare effects of money may be limited, due to the dependence of the monetary authority's reaction functions to external factors as the ratio of reserves to short-term external debt, expected inflation differential, and the interest rate of the anchorage money. This welfare effect may be increase by determining and following an optimal trajectory of reserves as a guarantee of and additional cyclical role of monetary policy. Also, inflation expectation must be anchorage by a definition of a communication strategy.
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Emile Thierry Mvondo. L'hypothèse de neutralité monétaire : une application à la Zone Franc. Economies et finances. Université Nancy 2, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011NAN20011⟩. ⟨tel-01749097⟩

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