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La société totalitaire dans le récit d'anticipation dystopique, de la première moitié du XXè siècle, et sa représentation au cinéma

Abstract : The utopian tradition a long time maintained the dream an ideal society located in one elsewhere, a u-­topos, the "place which is not" in the Utopia of Thomas More. The representation of these Utopias is indissociable of a determining factor for the construction of a better world: progress. Thus, this tradition is characterized by the Promethean accent of such a company, they are hands of the man who this new society will be worked. However, the point of view on the possibility of an ideal society gradually will inflect, in particular during the 19th century, to be reversed in a radical way at the beginning of the 20th century. Named anti-­Utopia or against-­Utopia, this disillusion underlines the impotence of the man and the ambiguous role of progress to invent the perfect society. Sometimes used as synonym of anti-­Utopia, the dystopia more precisely characterizes the texts which describe a society directed by an absolute system of oppression, based on an omnipotent State, and almost always scientifically organized. Thus, abnormal operations of the city of the future in The World such as it will be of Emile Souvestre, in 1846, in the State Unique in Us of Evgueni Zamiatine, written in 1920, the dystopia evolves by taking the form of the account of science fiction, and in particular that of anticipation. We will see, in particular, how the Utopia takes seat in works of Jules Verne and H.G. Wells. Zamiatine, very inspired by Wells, is the first great writer of the 20th century to be made use of the dystopia to describe the attributes of the totalitarian society. Thus, if our step consists, initially, to appoint the authors and texts which took part in the emergence of the dystopia, our analysis will primarily carry on Us and three other Romance founders of the dystopia at the 20th century: Brave New World of Aldous Huxley, published into 1932, 1984 of George Orwell, published in 1948 and Fahrenheit 451 of Ray Bradbury, published in 1953. We will study the totalitarian phenomenon according to interpretations that make our authors of them. It will be thus a question of the collectivization of the individual, the propaganda or the role of science in the organization of the totalitarian society. But it will also be a question of showing how our dystopies illustrates the combat of art against the totalitarian entropy, and the engagement of their authors in a true political discourse. Lastly, it appears essential to describe what perhaps appears as the most effective form of the representation of the dystopia: the science fiction film. We will see why the novel dystopic sorrow more and more support the comparison face to the immediacy of the language of the moving image.
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 29, 2018 - 12:07:35 PM
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François Rodriguez Nogueira. La société totalitaire dans le récit d'anticipation dystopique, de la première moitié du XXè siècle, et sa représentation au cinéma. Littératures. Université Nancy 2, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2009NAN21030⟩. ⟨tel-01749141⟩



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