Influence des Interactions bactéries-champignons sur la dissipation des HAP dans la rhizosphère

Abstract : The dissipation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), very common and persistant pollutants in soils from industrial wastelands, involve the action of bacterial and fungal microorganisms. However their respective contribution, and the influence of the microbial and plant-microbe interactions on in situ PAH dissipation, are poorly known and fungal communities were scarcely studied in such environments. This work aimed to study the fate of PAHs in rhizosphere under the influence of microorganisms and their interactions and to estimate the fungal diversity in contaminated soils. The dynamic of fungal communities was monitored in situ for 5 years, by real-time PCR and Temporal Temperature Gradient Electrophoresis (TTGE) in an aged PAH-polluted soil and in the same soil treated by thermal desorption. The results showed that plants had a positive effect on fungal abundance and diversity and were the main driver of fungal community structure, dominated by Ascomycetes. Besides, bacterial and fungal strains were isolated from this soil and screened for their ability to dissipate PAHs in vitro. Among them, the bacteria Arthrobacter oxydans Pyr2MsHM11 and the fungus Fusarium solani MM1 were chosen as model strains to study their individual and simultaneous effect on PAH dissipation in different experimental conditions, from liquid cultures to planted soil microcosms with a complex microflora. It was found that interactions between microorganisms, notably competition, had a crucial influence on their growth and on the expression of their PAH dissipation potential
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Cécile Thion. Influence des Interactions bactéries-champignons sur la dissipation des HAP dans la rhizosphère. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0023⟩. ⟨tel-01749190⟩

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