Expression des enzymes de la reméthylation de l'homocystéine et effets épigénétiques de la mycotoxine FB1 (fumonisine) dans l'hépatocarcinome

Abstract : Folate-mediated 1-carbon metabolism is a conduit that links cellular metabolism to the epigenetic machinery through the common molecule, AdoMet. There is strong evidence that changes in the cellular methylation potential (AdoMet/AdoHcy ratio) is involved in several types of disease notably tumor proliferation like hepatocarcinoma and developmental disease like neural tube defects. Perturbation of AdoMet/AdoHcy ratio may be related to a cellular cause like enzyme defect or to exposure to an environmental factor. The remethylation of homocysteine to methionine is catalyzed either by methionine synthase (MTR) or by betaine-homocysteine methyltrnasferase (BHMT) in the liver. By comparing tumor tissue to surrounding healthy tissue in the liver we have found that BHMT transcripts, but not MTR, are strongly decreased in tumor samples. Consistently, BHMT protein was not detected in HepG2 cells and in 5/6 tumors investigated. Abolition of BHMT expression was due to a genetic variant producing a premature termination codon. Prenatal methyl deficient diet (MDD) enhances susceptibility to disease. Fumonisin FB1 is a corn contaminating mycotoxin identified as a risk factor for tumor occurrence and neural tube defects. We have investigated folate receptors and 4 heterochromatin markers in rat foetuses liver derived from dams exposed to MDD and/or FB1 administered at a dose twice higher than the Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake. We found that MDD and even FB1 by itself decrease the AdoMet/AdoHcy ratio. FB1 reverses the adaptation mechanism consisting in upregulating folate receptors in case of folate depletion. MDD decreased H4K20me3 but combined MDD/FB1 decreased H4K20me3 even more and increased H3K9me3. The elevated H3K9me3 can be viewed as a defence mechanism inciting the cell to resist heterochromatin disorganisation. H3R2me2 and H4K16Ac varied according to this mechanism. This study is relevant because it suggests that low doses of FB1 interact with methyl depletion to disrupt the epigenetic landscape
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Hélène Pellanda. Expression des enzymes de la reméthylation de l'homocystéine et effets épigénétiques de la mycotoxine FB1 (fumonisine) dans l'hépatocarcinome. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0028⟩. ⟨tel-01749196⟩

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