Efficacité de trois stratégies de prévention du surpoids et de l'obésité à l'adolescence. Un essai avec randomisation en grappes

Abstract : Background: Given the increasing prevalence of youth overweight and obesity in the last decade, prevention as become an international public health priority. Objective: The aim of The PRALIMAP (PRomotion de l'ALIMentation et de l'Activité Physique) trial was to evaluate the 2-year effectiveness of three strategies - « Education », « Screening » et « Environment »- aimed at preventing overweight and obesity among adolescents in high school setting on body size and nutritional knowledge and behaviours. Method: PRALIMAP was a school-based randomized controlled trial beginning in 24 state-run high schools (clusters) in Lorraine (north-eastern France). Each study high school was assigned to receive or not, over a 2-year period (grades 10 and 11), each of the three prevention strategies according to a 2x2x2 factorial school randomization. The prevention strategies were: ?education? (development of nutritional knowledge and skills), "environment" (creation of favourable environment by improving availability of dietary items with a good nutritional quality and physical activity), and "screening" (detection of overweight and obesity and, if necessary, adapted care management). The follow-up consisted of three visits: at the entry of grade 10(T0), grade 11(T1) and grade 12(T2). Body mass index (BMI), BMI z-score and prevalence of overweight and obesity were the main outcomes measures. Secondary outcomes measures were nutritional knowledge and behaviours. Comparisons of changes (T2-T0) of outcomes measures between each strategy schools and their control were carried out using a three-level hierarchical mixed model. A process evaluation allowed estimating an intervention dose really received by adolescents. Results: The 2-year change of anthropometric outcomes was more favourable in the 12 screening high schools as compared with the no-screening ones: a lower increase in BMI (+0,6 vs +0,7, p=0,0303), a greater decrease in BMI z-score (-0,9 vs -0,5, p=0,0173) and a greater decrease in overweight / obesity prevalence (-2,3% vs -0,6%, p=0,0386). The education strategy resulted in improved nutritional behaviours: a greater increase in achievement of starchy food guidelines (3,6% vs -0.7%, p=0.0357) and physical activity practice (+0,02 vs -0,10, p=0,0047). The environment strategy resulted in improved nutritional attitudes: a lower decrease in achievement of number of weekly meals guidelines (-4.5% vs -8.5%, p=0.0101) and greater increase in nutritional knowledge (+1,9 point vs +1,0 point, p=0.0094). Some differences in activity implementation and participation were highlighted and can explain some of the results observed. Conclusions: The screening strategy is an effective way to prevent, at two years, overweight and obesity among adolescents in a high school setting. Nutritional education added to the curriculum is not effective in the short term on body size. The school nutritional environment modification is slightly associated with improved nutritional knowledge and behaviours
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Émilie Bonsergent. Efficacité de trois stratégies de prévention du surpoids et de l'obésité à l'adolescence. Un essai avec randomisation en grappes. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0080⟩. ⟨tel-01749239⟩

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