De la communauté à l'individu : apport des traits des invertébrés benthiques dans la bio-évaluation des cours d'eau

Abstract : In a global change context, ecosystems are subjected to more and more severe human pressures. In this context, optimizing the biomonitoring of natural ecosystems has become a major scientific, political and societal issue. In the early 2000th, most of the freshwater bioassessment methods did not succeed in fulfilling the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive, for efficiently evaluating the ecological status of rivers with the main objective to maintain or to reach the good ecological status for all the water bodies. In the same time, a major advance in community ecology was the explicit consideration of the biological and ecological attributes of species (i.e. their ?traits?) to better explain the role of habitat characteristics in community assembly. The main goal of this PhD work was to establish how trait-based approaches, at different biological scales, could enhance the bioassessment of French streams. We have first focused on the utilization of potential bio-ecological traits of macrobenthic communities for (i) evaluating the ecological quality of rivers, (ii) assessing the risk of significant alteration of benthic assemblages by specific pressure categories and (iii) appraising the human pressure-drived functional homogenization process in benthic communities. We examined the potential of new traits (derived from stable isotopy, stoichiometry and proteomics) for depicting the benthic invertebrate responses to 'simple' anthropogenic pressures (i.e. acidification and organic contamination). We have demonstrated that using potential bio-ecological traits efficiently enhances the ecological monitoring of wadeable rivers, at large spatial scale (e.g. on National survey networks). The stable isotope and stoichiometry analyses, when applied at reach scale, have allowed to link biological traits (i.e. diet and development) to ecological functions provided by macrobenthic communities, such as nutriment and organic matter flows in rivers. Finally, the proteomic analysis, performed along an acidification gradient, has brought out very interesting perspectives for the development of an integrative ?expert system? that early detects the biological effects of water quality alteration on benthic invertebrate assemblages
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Cédric Mondy. De la communauté à l'individu : apport des traits des invertébrés benthiques dans la bio-évaluation des cours d'eau. Biochimie, Biologie Moléculaire. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0221⟩. ⟨tel-01749314⟩

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