Les analyses pangénomiques dans l'exploration génétique de la déficience intellectuelle : de la recherche de gènes candidats du syndrome d'Aicardi, à la caractéristation du spectre mutationnel des gènes IL1RAPL1 et MBD5

Abstract : The genetic exploration of intellectual disability (ID) has been revolutionized with the improvement in sequencing technologies during last decade with characterization of mutational spectrum of genes involved in ID as well as to identify new genes associated with it. In this study we used high resolution (comparative genomic hybridization array) CGH-array and high throughput sequencing technique to find the genetic cause in patients with unexplained ID. Aicardi syndrome is a rare sporadic neurodevelopmental syndrome, characterized by classic triad of agenesis of corpus callosum, chorioretinal lacunes and infantile spasms. This syndrome is exclusively present in females with plausible hypothesis of X linked dominant mutation. We first tested DNA of 22 patients diagnosed with Aicardi syndrome by using a high resolution oligonucleotide CGH-array 1M specifically designed for X-chromosome without identifying any pathogenic CNV or deleterious rearrangements involved in the disease. High throughput sequencing for exome of X chromosome was carried out in one trio (patient-parents) and two patients with typical Aicardi syndrome diagnosis. Sequencing results detected 59 mutations in 51 genes. 13 mutations were inherited from mother, 8 inherited from father, 36 false positive and 2 were SNP?s. Second approach was based on High throughput sequencing for complete exome of five trios (patient-parents) DNA. We presented and commented different strategies for data analysis in search of a candidate gene. These results highlighted difficulties in terms of depth and alignment of sequencing reads which generated various false positive SNP?s and indels. In second cohort from reference centre of rare diseases CGH-array has identified two intragenic rearrangements of IL1RAPL1 gene: two unique duplications and one deletion. We analyze genotype-phenotype correlations with cases described in literature which emphasizes the clinical variability of expression in these patients. Two de novo intragenic deletions and a de novo intragenic duplication were detected in MBD5 gene in patients with ID. The de novo duplication of MBD5 resulted in an aberrant transcripts leading to a premature termination codon. A selected cohort of 78 patients were sequenced for MBD5 gene which revealed a de novo nonsense mutation in a male patient associated with a much more damaging phenotype. This study highlighted the advantages of pangenomic analysis by CGH-array and at the same time it identified the complexity and limitations in interpretation of results particularly for High throughput sequencing
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Asma Ali Khan. Les analyses pangénomiques dans l'exploration génétique de la déficience intellectuelle : de la recherche de gènes candidats du syndrome d'Aicardi, à la caractéristation du spectre mutationnel des gènes IL1RAPL1 et MBD5. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0147⟩. ⟨tel-01749343⟩

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