Extraction, identification et caractérisation des molécules bioactives de la graine et de l'huile de Silybum marianum. Étude de leurs activités antioxydante et antitumorale

Abstract : The supercritical CO2 extraction demonstrates the benefits of green chemistry process comparing with the method of organic solvents extraction and depending to toxicity and pollution solvent degree. Organic solvents extraction shows the solvent extraction influence, so that the SC-CO2 extraction highlights different parameters including pressure, temperature, contact time between the plant matrix and CO2 SC, the average particle diameter and the addition of a cosolvent. Chromatographic analysis identified and quantified four flavonolignans (silychristin, silydianin, silybin, taxifolin) in seed extracts obtained by organic solvents and SC-CO2 with cosolvent. At 220 bar, silydianin (38.87 mg / g) and silybin (45.91 mg / g) have highest concentrations and at 40°C silychristin (31.97 mg / g), silydianin (38.87 mg / g) and silybin (45.91 mg / g) have the most important concentrations. The oily extracts obtained at 220 bar and 40°C of Silybum marianum seeds are rich in fatty acids: linoleic acid (65.22%), oleic acid (27.01%), palmitic acid (12.12%). The antioxidant activity measured by two tests: DPPH and ABTS test. These two tests are complementary and confirm that the extract with the higher antioxidant effect is the extract obtained by SC-CO2 at 220 bar and 40°C. The biological activity of this extract is demonstrated with respect to a colon cancer cell line Caco-2. Silychristin, silydianin and silybin and the extract obtained by CO2-SC with co-solvent (ethanol) at 220 bar and 40°C were tested with respect to this line cancer. These experiments in vitro cytotoxic activity reflect estimable and cell death of Caco-2 flavonolignans of up to 71%
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Neïla Ben Rahal. Extraction, identification et caractérisation des molécules bioactives de la graine et de l'huile de Silybum marianum. Étude de leurs activités antioxydante et antitumorale. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0137⟩. ⟨tel-01749373⟩

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