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Indicateurs populationnels de pollution : marqueurs comportementaux chez des crustacés d'eau douce face à un stress métallique

Abstract : Organisms responses to various environmental disturbances are commonly used as biomarkers in the assessment of environmental quality. However, these responses are modulated by many factors and provide different information depending on their precocity, their relevance, specificity and complexity. In this context, we chose to study a set of behavioural responses in various species of freshwater crustaceans of ecotoxicological interest. To achieve this goal, we investigated the effects of biotic (i.e. predation risk) and/or abiotic stress (i.e. metal contamination) on behaviours of high ecological relevance, including some confounding factors (i.e. gender and individual length). In laboratory experiments, we studied the effects of: (i) a sediment contamination on the substrate avoidance in the decapod Astacus Astacus, the isopod Asellus Aquaticus and the amphipods gammarus pulex, gammarus roeseli and dikerogammarus villosus, (ii) a high predation risk on antipredator strategies in G. Pulex, G. Roeseli and D. Villosus, (iii) a high predation risk and a contamination of water by cadmium on antipredator strategies, cell damages and energy reserves in G. Roeseli and D. Villosus, and (iv) a contamination of water by cadmium on the precopulatory behaviour in D. Villosus. We have highlighted a strong interspecies variability and small differences depending on gender. The impact of cadmium was significant on the tested responses. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of behaviours, which can be considered as early warning signals and as relevant tools with high ecological relevance, in the assessment of stress effects and environmental quality
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Pascal Sornom. Indicateurs populationnels de pollution : marqueurs comportementaux chez des crustacés d'eau douce face à un stress métallique. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0324⟩. ⟨tel-01749403⟩

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