Nanoparticules polymères de deuxième et troisième générations pour des applications thérapeutiques anti-cancer et anti-HIV

Abstract : This work deals with biodegradable/biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles based on PLA and covered by a polysccharidic shell (dextran). First of all, amphiphilic dextran derivatives (DexC6, DexN3, Dex-g-PLA-g-N3) have been produced and their surfactive properties have been evaluated depending on their architecture and substitution degree. Then we took advantages of their ability to stabilize interfaces to formulate nanoparticles via two processes: emulsion/organic solvent evaporation and nanoprecipitation. Pam-LEY, peptide used as HIV-1 protease dimerisation inhibitor, was encapsulated with 40% efficiency into PLA nanoparticules covered by DexC6. Because this DexC6 surface is just physically adsorbed on the PLA core, a desorption is observed in presence of SDS. The use of Click-chemistry was judged interesting to solve that issue and to covalently link the hydrophilic polysaccharidic shell to the PLA core. Two strategies could be opposed. One one hand, oil-soluble Dex-g-PLA-g-N3 copolymers have been synthesized by click chemistry in homogeneous media and then nanoprecipitated in water. On other hand, an hydrophilic DexN3 has been emulsified with a alpha-alkyne PLA organic solution, in the presence of CuBr. By this way, click-chemistry occured in situ, at liquid/liquid interface during the emulsification step. Produced triazole rings link the core to the shell. Moreover, the use of the Huisgen cycloaddition reaction allowed us to produce nanoparticles having some residual azide functions on their surface. The nanoparticles have been post-fonctionnalized by a peptide used to target NRP-1, co-receptor of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor over-exprimed on the cancer tumors area
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Maxime Laville. Nanoparticules polymères de deuxième et troisième générations pour des applications thérapeutiques anti-cancer et anti-HIV. Alimentation et Nutrition. Université de Lorraine, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013LORR0023⟩. ⟨tel-01749420⟩

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