Étude de l'hydrolyse enzymatique des grains de colza et de tournesol : application à l'extraction de leurs huiles

Abstract : The extraction of oil from oilseed in an aqueous medium aims to remove the solvents used in the crushing industry. To extract oil from seeds, the enzymatic mixtures and numerous physico-chemical parameters have been studied. Two consecutive experimental designs, realized on the A.I.M. prepared from treated seeds, allowed to select effective enzyme mixtures, consisting of 3 or 4 commercial enzyme preparations out of the 25 originally selected. This original approach, based on the use of statistical tools, allows to achieve optimal mixtures for the degradation of the walls of studied seeds. The extraction of oil shows 4 phases after separation by centrifugation: solid residue, emulsion, aqueous phase and free oil. The effects of different physico-chemical parameters were evaluated (grinding time, temperature, agitation, separation...). Finally, the oil released from seeds using enzymatic mixtures made (85% of the total oil for rapeseed, 92 % for sunflower), the amount of fermentable sugars produced (60 and 80 g/l depending on conditions) or the concentration of solubilized protein (greater than 30g/l) are the landmark results of this study. This study, decrypting the conditions to implement the maximization of oil extraction in aqueous phase, is an important whole of knowledge to contribute the future development of a complete biorefining of rapeseed and sunflower with the use of each co-products : oils, proteins (napins from rape) and fermentable sugars.
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Guillaume Ricochon. Étude de l'hydrolyse enzymatique des grains de colza et de tournesol : application à l'extraction de leurs huiles. Sciences agricoles. Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2009INPL097N⟩. ⟨tel-01749531⟩

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