Modélisation locale d'une cellule de pile à combustible pour l'étude de systèmes électriques

Abstract : A heart of a fuel cell is a multi-physics system that couples mass and charge transport phenomena (in electrodes and electrolyte), and electrochemical kinetics at reactive sites ; to these phenomena, are added thermal transfer, and gas distribution problems. Many mathematical models have already been developed in order to describe locally these phenomena, through partial differential equations involving space and time. Theses models are often accurate, but they are hardly used in a system approach, since one aims to study a complex system in which the fuel cell is only one element among others. Many semi-empirical dynamics models have also been developed, with an electrochemical cell represented by an equivalent electrical circuit, the parameters of which are often determined experimentally, by spectroscopy measurements in particular. The main drawback of this approach is that it results in small signal models, which are theoretically only available around an operating point. The works presented in this thesis deals with the development, the experimental validation and the use of a 1D local PEM fuel cell model, of circuit type for a direct implementation in simulation software commonly used in electrical engineering (Saber® in our case). The elements of the model are determined by using electrical analogy of physical phenomena that occur in the fuel cell. The model is dynamic, and takes into account electric double layer, and influence of operating conditions (notably gas supply effects, such as over-feeding or transient gas starvation) on fuel cell performances. The first chapter presents literature review on existing fuel cell models, and enable to situate our work in this context. We give in chapter 2 local equations on which our model is based: gas transport in diffusion layers, water transport in the membrane, charge transport in electrodes and membrane, electrochemical kinetics at the membrane-electrode interfaces, electric double layer, boundary conditions. Then we detail the analogy representation that allows to compute transport equations by means of electrical engineering simulation software, as well as to complete electrical model. A comparison with a similar model implemented in a software using the finite element method is proposed, then an experimental validation in steady and transient state is carried out. The last chapter deals with the exploitation of the model for parametric study purposes (operating conditions, physical parameters), and for system simulation purposes (specific operations of a single cell, multi-cells in series, association with a power electronic converter)
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Panee Noiying. Modélisation locale d'une cellule de pile à combustible pour l'étude de systèmes électriques. Autre. Université de Lorraine, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013LORR0043⟩. ⟨tel-01749574⟩

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