Aspects anatomopathologiques des maladies inflammatoires chroniques intestinales chez l'homme et effet d'une carence en donneurs de méthyles sur le développement intestinal chez l'animal

Abstract : Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are very frequent. Pathological examination in IBD management is important for the diagnosis and for the follow-up of the disease. In this study we show that submucosal plexitis in the proximal resection margins and early surgical revision after the first ileocecal resection are associated with CD recidive requiring surgical treatment. It could be very important in order to stratify patients according to their risk, identifying those who can benefit from aggressive medication regimen, possibly modifying the natural course of CD. IBD pathogenesis is not completely clarified. We show the importance of molecules as PPAR gamma and NRLP6 in intestinal homeostasis : a reduced expression of PPAR gamma and NRLP6 could predispose of IBD. The same observation is made for methyl donor deficiency (MDD): methyl deficient diet aggravates experimental colitis induced by Dextran Sodium Sulfate in rat. To understand how MDD could play a part in Crohn?s disease pathogenesis, we investigated whether MDD may affect development and functions of small intestine in rat pups from dams subjected to the MDD during gestation and lactation. MDD has dual effects on small intestine by producing dramatic effects on enterocyte differentiation and barrier function in rats. Our observations could explain how vitamin B12 and folate deficiency can play a role in Crohn?s disease development
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Aude Marchal-Bressenot. Aspects anatomopathologiques des maladies inflammatoires chroniques intestinales chez l'homme et effet d'une carence en donneurs de méthyles sur le développement intestinal chez l'animal. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Université de Lorraine, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012LORR0205⟩. ⟨tel-01749615⟩

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